Varicose veins is the extension of the subcutaneous veins of a diameter greater than 3 mm. Varicose veins develop because of a violation of operation of venous valves weakness of the venous wall; when this occurs, the slowdown in the outflow of blood in the lower limbs, increased pressure within the veins, which can lead to chronic venous insufficiency.
Sometimes, spider veins and reticular veins mistaken for varicose veins are extensive.
This strand of diameter 3 mm and less, they do not affect the venous outflow, however, cause a noticeable aesthetic defect.
What is the prevalence of varicose veins?
Varicose veins of the subcutaneous veins is present in 30% of women and 15% of men of mature age. The prevalence of varicose veins of the lower limbs greatly increases with age and is present in most people over the age of 60 years. The percentage of patients with ulcers disorders in adulthood is of just 1.8%, while in advanced age, the percentage reaches 20%. In this case, every fifth patient in life collides with thrombophlebitis. Among the causes that lead to loss of work capacity, the percentage of forms of debilitating diseases of the veins more than the arteries.
The main risk factors for the development of varicose veins are:
- advanced age
- the female sex
- hormonal disorders
- a positive family history
For additional risk factors:
- arterial hypertension
The literature data for other risk factors are contradictory. The risk of development of venous disease low.
How is it manifested varicose veins?
The most frequent manifestation – protruding above the surface of the skin is not uniform, advanced to vienna. In some cases, may be barely visible or only be determined to the feel, others take a sinuous shape with the formation of knots or in the appearance reminiscent of a large grape cluster.
Often varicose veins accompanied with the following symptoms:
- feeling of heaviness and tension in the legs
- the pain, towing and/or aching in nature, along the veins
- fatigue of the legs
- itching of the skin of the legs
Rarely, varicose veins can cause restless legs syndrome and leg cramps at night.
What are the dangers of the progression of varicose veins?
In the absence of treatment, the progression of varicose veins can lead to chronic venous insufficiency (IVC). The presence of CVI testifies to serious violations of lymph and venous return (the clinical classes C3-C6 classification CEAP), which include: chronic edema (lymphedema), change of skin color (hyper pigmentation), eczema, venous, seal skin, trophic ulcer of venous.
What are the complications of varicose veins?
Thrombophlebitis – the formation of a blood clot in the superficial venous system is an event with which they face the 20% of patients with veins esophageal varices-dilated veins. So thrombosis is accompanied by some pain, redness of the skin, the seal along the vein on the leg and/or thigh. In the absence of possible treatment the spread of the masses thrombotic deep in the venous system.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) – in most cases, the beginning of a process asymptomatic. With the spread of thrombosis on the femoral segment and the veins of the pelvis broken, the main outflow of blood from the lower extremities, accompanied by a marked edema and pain syndrome is considered to be the savior of a threatening situation.
Thromboembolism of the pulmonary arteries (PE) - in 10% of cases, thrombotic mass in the deep veins of the lower limbs fragmented and with a current of blood and migrate to the pulmonary arteries, as of the dead.
What is necessary for a correct diagnosis?
Considering the variety of forms of diseases of the veins, the correct diagnosis is important every detail of the history of the development of the disease and life of patient, presence of concomitant diseases, transferred the operations, the result of the external examination of the doctor, and the most important thing - ultrasound duplex of the veins. The most recent, today, it is the most informative, precise and non-invasive method for the study of the veins of the lower limbs.
Treatments for varicose veins, the most common methods of:
- Pharmacological treatment – veno-tonics have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the symptoms of varicose veins, but alone are not able to eliminate varicose veins. The drug therapy has been applied with success to prevent complications in risk groups, preoperative preparation and postoperative rehabilitation.
- Compression treatment - wear special knitwear in the form of golf, stockings, tights. In some cases, apply a bandage multi-layer elastic bandages of various fabric and hardware pneumatic compression. The role of compression treatment is difficult to overestimate, is present in virtually every stage of the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases the veins.
- Introduction into the lumen of the vein, drugs can cause the closure. This method is the gold standard of the resolution of the reticular veins. Applied with success in the treatment of varicose veins, not of large diameter and has a limit in the resolution of pathological blood circulation to the trunk of the subcutaneous veins.
- Classic operation – combined flebectomia, modern in style and is performed on an outpatient basis under spinal or local anesthesia. In some cases is the only feasible way, when the destination vienna, highly convoluted and/or have a large extension. However, the method has a lower endo-vascular procedures, trauma.
- Endo venous obliteration laser – a method for the treatment of varicose veins, where the vein is not removed, and closes the inside of the laser radiation, which is carried directly inside of the vessel opto fiber. The effectiveness of the procedure is comparable with the results of surgical removal of the vein, however, is characterized by a minimum of traumatic. The recovery time of 1-3 days.
- Radio frequency obliteration – the progressive solution, the pathological blood circulation to the trunk of the subcutaneous veins. It is a completely outpatient procedure, performed under local anesthesia. The effectiveness of the treatment corresponds to the classical flebectomia, syndrome of minimal or absent. The recovery time of 1-2 days.