Varicose veins is a pathological disease that is the result of chronic venous insufficiency, in which the vein wall becomes thinner, the venous lumen enlarges, and aneurysmal expansion (lymph nodes) is formed. Visually, the veins become very swollen, blue, and twisted. It manifests as heavy legs, fatigue, swollen feet and legs, and night cramps in the legs.
Causes of varicose veins
The exact cause cannot be determined, but there are many factors that can cause increased pressure and decreased vein elasticity, as well as weakened valves, which can lead to varicose veins.
In clinical venous hematology, many predisposing factors for varicose veins are distinguished:
- Footwork or standing for a long time
- Use socks with strong elastic bands to compress the legs
- Congenital disease causes tissue weakness
- Walk upright. The legs increase the burden on the entire body. For people who work long hours, this factor is dangerous.
- Genetic susceptibility. If the parents have varicose veins, then the child with a 70% probability will also have pathology. Indeed, risks can be reduced and avoided. For this, you only need to create provocative factors. With genetic predisposition, varicose veins appear very early.
- Lifestyle. If a person is not active enough, the risk of varicose veins increases. Phlebologists call this condition "computerized varicose veins. "
- Hormonal disorders and pregnancy. During pregnancy, varicose veins are formed due to increased blood volume and venous compression caused by an enlarged uterus. With the destruction of hormones, the production of progesterone increases and the synthesis of estrogen decreases, which increases blood clotting.
- Blood flow disorders. This situation will occur with the formation of blood clots and the development of tumors.
- Obesity. Excessive weight will increase the burden on the legs and start blood circulation failure. Excessive weight will increase abdominal pressure, which will change the flow of blood.
- Diabetes. When you are sick, high sugar levels begin to damage the vascular system, leading to the formation of blood clots.
- Stress and neurological diseases can affect blood vessels, leading to the development of varicose veins.
- Drinking. Alcohol dehydrates the body. If you consume too much, your blood thickens, clogging your veins and starting to interrupt blood flow.
- The diet is not balanced. If the human body does not receive vitamin C, E, P and useful trace elements: the blood circulation is disturbed and the blood vessel condition deteriorates, which will lead to varicose veins.
- Stool is often stuck. In this case, abdominal pressure increases and blood flow in the legs is impaired.
- Kidney and heart disease
- Drug overdose will increase blood clotting
According to the reasons for the development of the disease, varicose veins are divided into 3 main stages:
- Sub compensation
- Compensation compensation
Varicose veins are not serious pathology, but their complications are very serious.
Attention! If this disease occurs, it will not go away on its own.Failure to contact experts in time can result in serious violations.
The main symptoms of varicose veins
The clinical manifestations of varicose veins are not difficult, which allows phlebologists to quickly make a preliminary diagnosis and send the patient to the instrument for diagnosis.
The main signs of varicose veins are:
- In the evening of the day, redness and swelling of the legs appeared. The first symptom may appear, especially when wearing tight shoes. After a normal rest in the morning, the swelling disappeared.
- Heavy legs. A person not only feels heavy, but also feels a sudden rupture of the calf, especially after a day of work. This phenomenon is more common among sedentary people. If you walk at night and ensure proper rest, the symptoms disappear in the morning but reappear at night.
- The intense heat in the legs, especially the calves.
- Night cramps of cramped calves
- The appearance of the vascular network of the legs (blue-red "stars").
- There are more veins in the legs (as if they are higher than the skin). This sign is one of the last signs that can tell of obvious varicose veins.
must receive compulsory treatment, and the sooner it is completed, the less severe the complications will be.
Complications of varicose veins
When varicose veins appear, the pathology will not disappear on its own, and if it is not treated, it will begin to produce complications. What is the danger of varicose veins? What are the consequences in the context of this disease?
The complex forms of varicose veins are felt through:
- Acute thrombophlebitis
- Hypertrophic ulcer
- Venous thrombosis.
Progressive disease causes varicose phlebitis, followed by venous thrombosis. This condition affects the deep veins. Not only will the blood flow in the legs be disturbed, but it will stop, leading to the formation of gangrene.
Diagnosis of varicose veins
When varicose veins begin to develop, symptoms are usually not obvious, and leg pain and other sensations are usually attributed to fatigue.
The patient did not immediately decide to see a doctor (the veins began to swell, which was visible to the naked eye).
Venous hematologists are engaged in the diagnosis of varicose veins. The diagnosis is established based on data from conversations with patients, internal examinations, and diagnostic studies, especially:
- Color duplex check. It can measure the speed and direction of blood. The data allows to map blood flow.
- Venography. Shows the external characteristics of the vein and the operation of the valve. This method is used in extreme cases
- Diagnostic Test-The most common test that can determine the patency of the vein and the condition of the valve is Troyanova.
- Doppler ultrasound-assessment of blood flow in specific blood vessels.
is used to diagnose superficial and deep veins.
Consequences of varicose veins in the legs
The danger lies not in the varicose veins itself, but in the subsequent complications and consequences, which become a real threat to human life. Let's take a closer look at
This state involves several development steps. At the beginning of venous insufficiency, the change is not obvious, and horizontal venous return occurs.
can be divided into four stages:
- Empty. There are no typical symptoms, only temporary swelling of the legs and slight veins.
- The first. It was accompanied by severe varicose veins in the legs, but no nutritional failure.
- The second. There are obviously a large number of nodular veins on the legs, and the legs are affected by eczema and ulcers.
- The third. Persistent nutritional disorder, cannot be treated with medication
Patients with chronic venous insufficiency have the following symptoms:
- Blood stagnation and formation (varices)
This complication is characterized by the appearance of blood clots that block blood vessels. The blood becomes thick and difficult to drain. The thighs and lower thighs are affected. Phlebologists can easily identify complications through obvious changes:
- Sealing fabric
When thrombophlebitis develops, many veins are affected, including the pulmonary artery. The first symptom of thrombophlebitis should be treated immediately, and surgery should be used as a treatment method.
At the beginning, if the varicose veins have not reached the calf, outpatient treatment should be performed.
For treatment, please apply:
- Non-steroidal drugs for inflammation.
- A vasoprotective agent.
Nutritional ulcers often occur in the late stage of severely impairing blood flow. Typical signs of complications:
- Slow formation
- The skin on the legs turns dark and pigmentation
Any trauma to the leg may damage and rupture the ulcer. If you provide quick help, there will be no consequences, and the wound will heal quickly, otherwise the tissue will become inflamed and bacterial infections of various severity may develop.
Surgery to treat complex trophic ulcers. During the treatment, the expert will prescribe bed rest for 2 weeks or more. As a conservative treatment, broad-spectrum antibiotics, regenerative drugs and topical antiseptics need to be prescribed.
Thromboembolism is the most dangerous and fatal consequence. This condition indicates that the sloughed thrombus mass is blocking the pulmonary artery or its branches.
Main development risks:
- Perform operation
- Heart failure
- Lying for a long time
Complications are more common in women, and may develop even in children. Pulmonary embolism can be determined by the following symptoms:
- Chest pain
- Temperature rise
- Coughing up blood
- Shortness of breath
The disease cannot be diagnosed alone; if thromboembolism is suspected, you must be hospitalized urgently.
Treatment and prevention of varicose veins
Today, there are several main treatments for varicose veins:
- Conservative treatment. The technique depends on the stage of the disease. They use medications, sclerotherapy of affected veins and compression therapy.
- Surgical treatment. The method includes several types of surgery: radiofrequency ablation, venous thermal occlusion, Varadi surgery and venous laser coagulation.
The essence of prevention is to keep the blood vessels healthy and prevent the venous circulation from failing.
also shows preventive measures for healthy people who may develop varicose veins due to genetics or standing work, and healthy people who already have varicose veins.
For precaution, you need:
- In order to control weight, the legs of obese patients bear a great burden, blood circulation is disturbed, and blood vessels cannot function properly. When performing a weight loss diet, the menu should be controlled so that it is correct and complete.
- Eat the right food so that the diet contains food that can strengthen the vascular system and normalize blood circulation. Should include more plant-based foods, whole wheat bread.
- Practice moderate physical exercise to prevent varicose veins and keep leg veins in good condition. Ideal for swimming, walking, dancing.
- Wear loose clothes and shoes.
- Using products in the form of ointments and creams can make useful substances penetrate tissues, improve blood circulation, and strengthen blood vessels.
Even if varicose veins begin to develop, prevention can significantly slow down the development of pathology and reduce the risk of complications.