Varicose veins of the lower limbs, which are also called varicose veins, manifests as the extension of the superficial veins of the legs, which accompanies the violation of the current of blood and the failure of the valves.
For varicose veins of the legs form an extension of the walls. When this was observed an increase of the length of the veins, the curves that resemble the curves of the snake, insufficiency of the valves. Currently, the varicose veins disease is very widespread and is observed in approximately 17-25 % of the people.
At a young age, before the onset of puberty, this disease develops to the representatives of both sexes with the same frequency. However, women of adult age suffer from varicose veins observed two times more often than men. A similar picture can explain substantial hormonal changes during the period of the onset of menstruation, during pregnancy. In the end the tone of the veins attenuated, expand and verify a violation of the venous circulation.
Today, experts tend to keep a lot of theories that indicate why you develop varicose veins on the legs. But, still, talking about the root cause of this disorder, you must detect infringement of the valve unit of the veins. As a result, the valves that prevent the movement of blood in the opposite direction. Then, do only occurs in the flow of blood to the heart. The function of the valves of the veins can occur because of a thrombosis, congenital insufficiency of the valves, the weakness of the walls of the veins and for other reasons.
In case of insufficiency of the valves of the veins of a man who stood up, occurs the pressure of the blood towards the bottom under the influence of gravity. When walking occurs the contraction of the calf muscles surrounding the deep veins. Consequently, the veins become empty, and you experience an increase in the venous pressure. At the end, the blood enters the superficial veins, are stretched, and is manifested varicose.
There is also a series of factors, which directly affect the progression of varicose veins. Women often develops as a result of the pregnancy. In this period, the female body has greatly increased the volume of the blood. The uterus strong pressure on the veins that go from the feet. In addition, in the course of pregnancy, the state of the walls of the veins affected by hormonal changes in the body. In many cases, varicose veins during pregnancy leads to reversible, i.e. after delivery is gradually disappearing.
Very often varicose veins of the lower limbs manifests itself in people who work are forced to stand for a long time. Another risk factor is obesity: in obese persons has placed increased intra-abdominal pressure and, consequently, the extension of the veins.
Often the veins will dilate also the people, who often tend. This happens when the chronic constipation, cough, adenoma of prostate and other states. Varicose veins can sometimes be the result of surgery to the legs.
Another factor is the age of a person. Usually, with the passage of time occurs the ageing of the valves and walls of veins. In the end you lose the elasticity, and the veins are stretched.
Varicose veins occurs frequently in patients with deep vein thrombosis with congenital abnormalities of the blood vessels.
Considering the factors that have directly influenced the development of the disease, distinguish primary and secondary varicose veins.
First of all, the visible symptoms of varicose veins on the legs is the presence on the surface of the skin of the feet is a network of thin veins. Such events mainly occur in the area of the hips. A grid is more easy to take into consideration the people who suffer from cellulite. Sometimes it is just cellulite, it becomes a kind of precursor to varicose veins. Often deposits of fat and cellulite pressure on the venous vessels, and at the end is complicated by the flow of the blood and occurs the disease.
Knit in the foot, which occur at the beginning of varicose veins, called telangiectasia. Note, however, that these external manifestations can be signs, and a temporary manifestation of the inflammatory process.
In some cases the beginning of varicose veins testify to the swelling in the legs. However, this indication can be a symptom of other diseases (heart failure, renal disease, renal). So in this case we can clearly talk about the development of the disease before establishing a diagnosis.
A symptom of varicose vein disease often also becomes a manifestation of pain in the legs. The pain can be sharp, and also have pulling signs. There is often pain in the calves. It occurs mainly in the afternoon, after a certain weight on the feet.
In this way, the man who observes the appearance of the capillary mesh, and the periodic manifestations of pain and swelling, should consult a physician and do the necessary research.
Often varicose veins provides the patient with a cosmetic discomfort. But apart from this, this may lead to a feeling of strong gravity in the foot, at night, may occur convulsions, on the tibia gradually changes manifest trophic.
Visually, the disease can manifest itself, and is not particularly obvious "asterisks", small vessels, and very large nodes, and the solar plexus, which stand out, especially when the patient remains in a vertical position.
If you hold the palpation of the veins, what is defined as their elastic, elastic consistency, are easily compressed. The skin over the nodes may have a higher temperature compared to other sectors. If a person takes a horizontal position, the tension of the veins disappears, and the nodes become less pronounced.
If with the evolution of the disease the man does not think, how to treat varicose veins, the disease progresses, and gradually the symptoms described are accompanied by a sense of fatigue, and the constant heaviness of the legs, and the sensation of swelling in their tissues, they can sometimes manifest itself in seizures. If edema, then disappear after a long period of rest during the night.
Complications varicose veins of the legs
Very often, complications varicose veins acute is manifested thrombophlebitis of the superficial veins. Sometimes due to damage occurs the rupture of varicose veins of the node and the bleeding. When the flow of blood with a node, which is erupted, it is possible to a considerable loss of blood.
In addition, due to an increase of pressure in the system of the veins slowing of blood flow the arterial. Because of this, can develop hypoxia, and the consequent lack of oxygen. Because of the development of this condition can die in case of the fabric, which is dangerous for the body to process. Due to the expressed stagnation of blood in the veins, the toxins accumulate in the tissues.
Complications of this disease become also the block of blood clots in the blood, eating disorders, the tissues of the legs, the appearance of pigmentation and darkening of the skin.
It gradually becomes more dense layer of subcutaneous fat, you experience dermatitis, venous wounds. In very rare cases, the revival of these sores in the malignant tumors.
If the disease continues for a long period of time, then the person is subsequently able to develop chronic venous insufficiency.
But the most dangerous complication of varicose vein disease is pulmonary embolism. This disease is fraught with fatal consequences.
To diagnose this disease is relatively easy. Specialist necessarily conducts the inspection and investigation of the patient, study the history. In the course of further research given the state of the valves of the veins, and also assessed the level of venous obstruction. There are a number of different tests, which allows to assess the state of the veins and the degree of development of the disease.
If the patient's varicose veins in the initial phase, in most cases, the instrumental methods of diagnostics do not apply.
The conservative treatment of varicose veins primarily it is awarded to those who have definite contraindications to performing surgery.
Also usually the treatment is indicated in the presence of the patient, minor varicose veins, which is a purely cosmetic flaw. The objective of conservative therapy is also a warning of further progression of this disease. With this purpose, patients are encouraged to apply the bandage of the foot with an elastic bandage. Also, shown compression stockings. The people who have the tendency to varicose veins, or already ill with this disease, in the course of the day regularly put your feet on the floor, resting this way for a couple of minutes. There are also specific exercises for your legs and feet, aimed at the activation of muscle pump venous. This periodic extension and flexion of the ankle and the knee.
The patient must follow or avoid to prevent retraction calf and thigh several objects of the toilet, as this can significantly obstruct the current of venous blood.
With the help of compression it is possible to activate the flow of blood in the deep veins, alert, and the swelling, reduce the amount of blood in the subcutaneous veins, and to promote exchange processes of the body and the blood microcirculation.
But in order to achieve positive results, it is important to strip off on the right foot. This process is necessary to produce the morning, is still climbing from the bed. Develop range goes from the toes up to the thigh, when it's supposed to make you feel a slight tension bandage. In the process, of necessity, need to grasp the heel and the ankle. Blindfold each rotation around the limb has half the suppression of the previous tour. To buy you need an elastic bandage and compression stockings.
Treatment of varicose veins involves also wear comfortable shoes must be low heel and a rigid sole. You must not stay long, avoid physical stress, a long period of persistence in environments with high temperature and humidity. In the dream the legs should be maintained in the raised position.
Patients should limit the intake of liquids and salt, try to get rid of excess weight. For the treatment of varicose veins you have to regularly take diuretic drugs, the tools that improve the tone of veins. Also, in the presence of indications the patient may prescribe drugs that stimulate the microcirculation in the tissues. The therapy of varicose veins may also result in receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory funds.
If the varicose veins in an elementary form, for him, this is therapeutic exercise. Very useful swimming, other water treatments, a foot bath with warm water, add 5-10 % solution of sodium chloride.
Very often in the treatment of varicose veins apply the methods of local therapy. But this treatment must be used in combination with other methods of medicine. The local media variceal product in the form of gels, ointments, creams. In most of these drugs is present in the heparin. Ointment varices to promote the normalization of the tone of the walls of the veins, can adjust the violation of the outflow of lymph and microcirculation. In some of the local dishes prepared in the composition is present in different current components. In some of them, even of heparin is rutin, D-panthenol.
If in the process of varicose veins occurs the accession secondary infection, then it is advisable to apply external means with antibiotics or antiseptics.
Since ancient times, is used to treat hirudotherapy. The application of leeches, expelling hirudin, you can dilute the blood, promotes the removal of blood clots, get rid of varicose veins and the veins of nodes. In addition, this procedure helps reduce the pain in the legs, pass through the swelling. However, such therapy it is important to apply already in the very early stages of varicose vein disease. This treatment should not be used for people with haemophilia, anemia, hypotension, and pregnant women.
However, the radical method of therapy of varicose veins is surgery. Its possession with the goal of eliminating venous reflux. This operation is not carried out in the presence of a patient suffering from concomitant diseases of the lung, cardiovascular, kidney, liver. It is not possible to do this operation, pregnant women, and also people who suffer from the purulent diseases.
If a person extended only small branches, it is permissible to use sclerotherapy. This operation involves the introduction into a vein of a solution for the aggregation of the walls of the veins. Then in the other cuts the veins pass repeated injections, obtaining a complete closure of the vein.
Varicose veins you also apply to the combined operating of therapy, in which is made for the removal of large trunks modified sclerotherapy of the veins, and small branches. After the surgery, patients are encouraged to continue to wear an elastic bandage for 8-12 weeks.