If the outflow of venous blood is impaired, the pressure inside the vein will increase, and they will begin to swell and become visible under the skin. Varicose veins usually affect the veins of the lower limbs, but it can also occur in any organ in the body.
Varicose veins in the legs can affect men and women of all ages, but they are more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Varicose veins are a very common condition. As many as 15% of elderly men and almost all elderly women suffer from this disease.
Risk factors for pathological development:
- The existence of the disease in close relatives;
- a sedentary lifestyle;
- Standing for a long time;
Causes of varicose veins
The cause of varicose veins is not fully understood. In some cases, because the valve device of the blood vessel located deep in the tissue is absent or weak, the blood flowing through the vein is not smooth. Similarly, varicose veins in the lower limbs and other organs may be caused by the weakness of the blood vessel wall itself.
It is less common that varicose veins in the legs are related to the following conditions:
- Previous vein inflammation (phlebitis);
- Blood clots are formed on the venous bed;
- Congenital abnormal blood vessel development.
The disease is a progressive disease and cannot be completely cured. However, there are quite effective ways to prevent varicose veins-use compression stockings, maintain a normal weight and do regular physical exercise, especially walking or swimming. The dynamic load of the legs helps the muscles to push blood to the veins, while the valves prevent blood from flowing in the opposite direction.
Classification of varicose veins
According to the location of the pathologically changed blood vessel, the following forms of varicose veins can be distinguished:
- Varicose veins of female pelvis;
Lower limb vein
- Esophageal vein dilation in liver pathology;
- Variations after thrombosis in different organs.
Varicose veins have the following stages:
- Compensation: No complaint, visible expansion of leg veins;
- Undercompensation: Patients complain of swelling, swelling, heavy legs, and night cramps;
- Decompensation: Skin changes-pigmentation, signs of chronic inflammation, trophic ulcers.
In clinical practice, the CEAP classification is often used, which fully describes the clinical signs, etiology, lesion sites and types of abnormal blood flow.
Symptoms of varicose veins
In the initial stage of the disease, patients are only concerned with aesthetic discomfort. Join further:
- Pain, cramping, itching;
- Swelling, especially at night, heavy and tired legs;
- A feeling of fullness.
Less common but more serious symptoms include:
- Subcutaneous bleeding caused by vein rupture;
- Nutritional ulcer;
- "spreading" dermatitis;
- Severe scars on the skin.
These complications are much worse than the early pathology response to treatment.
In order to check the veins of the legs and receive treatment for varicose veins, it is necessary to contact a vascular surgeon or venologist. Diagnosis must include venous Doppler ultrasound to assess blood flow, vessel walls and valve equipment.
Treatment of varicose veins
How to treat varicose veins depends on the size and location of the vein changes, the presence of symptoms and skin changes. Varicose veins can be treated in many ways:
- The posture with the legs raised when lying or sitting;
- Use specially selected compression socks;
- Sclerotherapy (special drugs are injected into the vascular cavity to form a blood clot and then destroy the vein);
- Use laser, radio frequency and other techniques to ablate pathologically changed veins;
- Surgical treatment of varicose veins in the legs-venectomy.
In the early stages of the disease, the doctor will prescribe an oral or topical varicose vein medication:
- Varicose vein tablets;
- Varicose vein ointment has beneficial effects such as anti-inflammatory, vasoconstriction and anticoagulation.
In addition, many patients use folk remedies for varicose veins:
- The alcohol tincture of horse chestnut or kalanchoe leaves, used for kneading and pressing;
- Extracted from tomatoes, cabbage, longevity vegetables;
- Drops for ingestion from herbs-nettle, arrow grass, chamomile and St. John's wort, raspberry leaves, marshmallow root.
To prevent or slow the development of varicose veins, doctors recommend the following prevention rules:
- Raise the legs on the pillow regularly;
- refuse to stand for a long time;
- Use preventive compression stockings, which can be bought in pharmacies or medical equipment stores;
- Regular physical exercise (walking);
- Weight control;
- If you need to stand for a long time-do simple exercises (roll from toe to heel, lift toe, rotate foot).
These measures will help mechanically reduce the load on the venous bed, improve the function of the venous valve device and protect the blood vessel wall.