Varicose veins or varicose veins is the extension of the superficial veins, associated with insufficiency of the venous valves and violation of the circulation of the blood. This disease is the most common vascular pathology among people of working age.
Causes of varicose veins
Traditionally, we distinguish risk factors for development and progression of the disease. The legacy and its contribution in the case of varicose veins definitely is not. It was noticed that in some families a certain number of generations meets continuously varicose veins, but today it is believed that the prevailing role in the occurrence of the disease play nutritional factors, the characteristics of the style of life, but also of the conditions associated with the hormonal changes of the cycle.
Obesity is one of the main risk factors for the development of the disease. In addition, the frequency of the development of varicose veins increases with the increase of the degree of severity of obesity. Often obesity accompanies a fixed or a sedentary lifestyle and an incorrect diet. In the diet of the population of industrialized countries is currently dominated by products of high degree of processing, but it remains insufficient intake of vegetable fiber, which is found in raw vegetables and fruits. Plant fibers are needed to strengthen the vascular wall, in addition, it prevents the chronic constipation, which, in turn, leads to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure and the formation of varicose veins.
You can not forget, and not to the proper organization of the work process. Often, most of the time that we spend in the seated position or standing, and this is very bad for the valve unit of the veins. Also unfavorable is a tough job, due to the strong load on the lower limbs, for example, during lifting weights. In our time the dynamic is not rare they become long journeys or trips, which are accompanied by stagnation of blood in the veins of the legs and are also a risk factor of venous disorders.
Adhering to the fashion trends, many people do not think that the tight underwear leads to compression veins at the level of the inguinal folds and corsets will increase the abdominal pressure, so it is not recommended to wear them constantly. Also, do not forget about the dangers of wearing high heel shoes, with discomfort to the foot support.
Repeated pregnancy are proven to be a risk factor of venous disorders. Increased the uterus helps to increase intra-abdominal pressure, and this hormone, such as progesterone, which has a negative impact on the venous wall, destroying it contains collagen and elastic fibers. Some diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, to proceed with the change in the hormonal level. The risk of varicose veins increases dramatically.
The symptoms of varicose veins of the lower limbs
As you can guess from the name, the visible sign of the varicose disease is considered to be saccular or cylindrical extension of the superficial veins.
Become retorta, protruding above the surface of the skin in the area of the legs and stop. Most varicose veins are expressed after heavy or a long physical activity. Very often advanced veins appear in young age, women during or after pregnancy.
In the initial stage of varicose veins symptoms are few and non-specific. All the signs of this phase unite in "the syndrome of heavy legs". With this discomfort, fatigue, feeling of heaviness in the legs, burning sensation, distension of the, the manifestation of which is the maximum after the physical activity. Can also occur with temporal swelling, pain, pain in the movement of the veins. With this, it is characterized by a small swelling of the ankles and the rear part of the foot that occurs in the evening, especially after a long period of static load. A characteristic symptom swelling is in the morning, to go without leaving a trace. For this phase, not necessarily visible, dilated veins. As a general rule, most patients with varicose veins celebrated in the debut of the disease, the presence of these or other signs. The timely referral to a specialist even at the initial stage of the disease will prevent the further development of the disease.
Particular attention should be paid to the examination of the question of "varicose veins", as an important symptom of venous insufficiency. "Telangiectasia" is the impalpable extended more than 0.1 mm capillaries visible through the skin.
As a general rule, the women consider these "stars" as an aesthetic defect, men do not notice. In fact, in some cases, these manifestations dishormonal violations, abuses, sauna, solarium, avoid high temperatures and the removal of hormonal imbalances (for example, the use of oral contraceptives) will completely heal the disease. But, in most cases, the appearance of "varicose veins" is the first and perhaps the only sign of the overflow of the superficial veins and development of varicose veins. So, even if you have a small area to the extended capillary of the mesh, you need to consult a specialist.
Complications of varicose veins
Varicose veins - not just an aesthetic problem, but a dangerous disease, mainly because of his complications. Incorrect or late treatment develop such a formidable state, such as thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, and bleeding of the dilated veins. Thrombosis total or partial closure of the lumen of the vein trumpets) or thrombophlebitis (an inflammatory disease of the wall of the venous thrombosis) occurs suddenly, is not associated with physical activity. The swelling is spreading rapidly on the lower limb, which is accompanied by strong arching pain. Can occur redness or blue, local tenderness of the skin. In the case of detachment of a clot of blood, with a current of blood which enters in the blood vessels of the lungs, and in the case of total or partial closure of the container can cause a severe disease - pulmonary embolism. This complication is frequently lethal. If you suspect data complications of varicose vein disease you need to immediately take a horizontal position, lift the leg upward, over the phone, with emergency medical care. It is not possible to compress the muscles in the foot, use a pomade, a step on the foot.
Dangerous is and trauma advanced of the blood vessels, as it may result in a severe hemorrhage. In this case, the urgent need to place the foot above the bleeding point series (doctor or improvised), it is quite strong, the bleeding has stopped. It is also necessary to call urgently a team of first aid.
The identification of at least one of the signs of the above is required, the inspection phlebologist - specialist in diseases of the veins and, if necessary, consulting other professionals, such as, for example, the vascular surgeon, a family doctor, gynecologist.
The diagnosis of varicose veins
When we refer you to a doctor, probably, you will be prompted with the following survey:
- The analysis of the blood. The number of red blood cells and hemoglobin says about the degree of thickening of the blood, the level of platelets can judge the disease of the coagulation system of the blood (thrombosis), the increase in the number of white blood cells characterizes inflammation (confirmation thrombophlebitis).
- The "Gold" standard of diagnosis of varicose vein disease is considered to be ULTRASOUND of the veins of the lower extremities, in which are defined the affected areas veins. On this principle is based the anatomical classification of varicose veins with the indication of the modified ship. For example, the defeat is the great saphenous vein above or below the knee, small saphenous vein. ULTRASOUND of the blood vessels of the lower limbs suggested the identification of the above signs of varicose vein disease, even when prompted to "varicose veins".
- Rheovasography - method for determining failure of hyperemia (power supply) tissues by calculating rheographic index. On the basis of this indicator is detected stage of the disease: compensation, subcompensation or decompensation.
- When questionable data techniques for non-invasive use of surgical techniques of research, for example, venography (injection of intravenous contrast medium, with the objective of evaluating the state of the venous system).
The treatment of varicose veins
The treatment of varicose veins is a complex process, whose duration depends on the stage of the disease. Therapeutic activities are divided into surgical and conservative (non-surgical).
Non-surgical treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs gives good results only in the debut of the disease, when the skin manifestations are not very pronounced and only moderately reduces the work capacity. Also conservative therapy is indicated in the presence of contraindications to the surgical treatment. Additionally, these methods must necessarily be used in the postoperative period to prevent recurrence of the disease.
The conservative treatment involves the lowering of the severity of risk factors, adequate physical activity, elastic compression, medications, and physiotherapy. The application of the data of activities in collaboration guarantees a good result. Together with a specialist is necessary to identify the risk factors of varicose veins, for example, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, no correct physical exercise, and try to act on them.
People who have risk factors for developing varicose veins, including a genetic predisposition, even in the absence of symptoms of disease, it is necessary at least twice a year, consult with a phlebologist with the obligation to perform an ULTRASOUND of the veins of the lower limbs.
Elastic compression - the method of treatment of varicose veins by using elastic bandage, or the use of knitted fabrics. In this way, is created dosed constriction of the muscles. This promotes better blood circulation in the veins, the leaves of the stagnant phenomena. For the account artificial to maintain the "tone" of the vienna cease to expand, is created for the prevention of thrombosis.
In all phases of the development of varicose veins recommended the application of drugs-phlebotonics. Their action is aimed at strengthening the vein wall. During long-term treatment of 6 months and more. This is also drugs that reduce the viscosity of the blood - agents, anti-platelet, anti-inflammatory medications.
There are folk remedies are available in mind herbal medicines, are not equal to effectiveness with the drugs, then it's not worth to self-medicate. The drug therapy must be applied only on doctor's prescription. Local treatment, such as the various ointments, gels are not recommended in the absence of thrombosis, thrombophlebitis.
Physiotherapy has no self-value. Applies only on the prescription of the medical doctor depending on the main problem. Application of physical methods in the home alone can lead to the development of complicating the accession of inflammation, the separation of a blood clot). In the case of the correct destination for the best effect of diadynamic current, magnetic field, electrophoresis, laser.
Varicose veins of the lower limbs - surgical treatment of the disease, a complete cure which is possible only after the surgical treatment. Depending on the location of the lesion and the severity of the disease, the following methods of surgical treatment.
1. Flebectomia - the surgical removal of varicose veins-extended to vienna. The purpose of the operation is the removal of pathological waste blood by removing the main trunks of large or small saphenous vein, and ligation of communicating veins. This operation is contraindicated in:
- serious concomitant illness, in which the possession of a surgery can greatly aggravate the condition;
- the next stage of varicose veins;
- of pregnancy;
- the presence in the body of a process is purulent;
- age advanced.
2. The hardening - introduction extended into a vein of a particular substance (sclerosant), which he calls "agglomeration" of the walls of veins with the cessation of the flow of blood through it. Consequently, it lacks the pathological refusal of blood, eliminates the aesthetic defect, as well as vienna humbles himself and becomes invisible. But sclerotherapy is effective only with the expansion of small branches, main trunks, which limits its application with the great event of the process. The advantage of sclerotherapy is the lack of scars, the need for hospitalization. After sclerotherapy veins specific rehabilitation is not necessary.
3. Laser coagulation - a method based on the destruction of the vein wall by heat of laser exposure, causing "glutino bonum est" level. It only shows the expansion of vienna-not more than 10 mm. the Method that is associated with the development of anesthesia. Aesthetically it is preferable to phlebectomy, but as and after the removal of vienna requires gait early of the patient, and also along the elastic compression.
The prevention of varicose veins
In the modern world, great importance is given to the prevention of varicose vein disease. New running simple tasks will greatly reduce the risk of onset and progression of the disease:
- Mobile lifestyle - a basis for prevention, it is also important to the alternation of long-term static loading with walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, running simple exercises in the workplace.
- As much time as possible to maintain the foot in the raised position.
- To avoid increasing body weight.
- Wear comfortable shoes with a maximum heel of 4 cm, if necessary, use orthotics.
- In the case of estrogen, for example, oral contraceptives, during pregnancy necessarily pass ULTRASOUND of the veins of the lower limbs.